Combination of uterine natural killer cell immunoglobulin receptor haplotype and trophoblastic HLA-C ligand influences the risk of pregnancy loss: a retrospective cohort analysis of direct embryo genotyping data from euploid transfers
To compare maternal uterine natural killer cell immunoglobulin receptor (KIR) genotype and haplotype frequencies between patients whose euploid single-embryo transfer resulted in pregnancy loss and those that resulted in delivery and to determine if the risk of pregnancy loss was affected by the HLA-C genotype content in the embryo.
Academic research center.
Autologous fresh IVF cycles resulting in positive serum β-hCG during 2009–2014.
Main outcome measure(s)
1) Relative risk of pregnancy loss according to maternal KIR genotypes and haplotypes. 2) Comparison of pregnancy loss rates within each KIR haplotype according to HLA-C ligand present in trophectoderm biopsy samples.
A total of 668 euploid single-embryo transfers with stored maternal DNA and available preamplification DNA from prior trophectoderm biopsy samples were studied. KIR2DS1, KIR3DS1, and KIR2DS5 were more common in patients who experienced pregnancy loss. Carriers of KIR A haplotype exhibited a decreased risk of pregnancy loss compared with KIR B haplotype carriers. However, among KIR A haplotype carriers, the risk of loss was significantly influenced by whether the transferred embryo carried a C1 allele versus no C1 alleles.
KIR A haplotype carriers experienced fewer pregnancy losses than KIR B haplotype carriers after euploid single-embryo transfer. However, this risk was modified by HLA-C alleles present in the embryo. High-risk combinations (KIR A/homozygous C2 and KIR B/homozygous C1) resulted in a 51% increased risk of loss over all other combinations.