POI y daño del ADN
What is the prevalence of somatic chromosomal instability among women with idiopathic primary ovarian insufficiency (POI)?
A subset of women with idiopathic POI may have functional impairment in DNA repair leading to chromosomal instability in their soma.
The formation and repair of DNA double-strand breaks during meiotic recombination are fundamental processes of gametogenesis. Oocytes with compromised DNA integrity are susceptible to apoptosis which could trigger premature ovarian aging and accelerated wastage of the human follicle reserve. Genomewide association studies, as well as whole exome sequencing, have implicated multiple genes involved in DNA damage repair. However, the prevalence of defective DNA damage repair in the soma of women with POI is unknown.
In total, 46 women with POI and 15 family members were evaluated for excessive mitomycin-C (MMC)-induced chromosome breakage. Healthy fertile females (n = 20) and two lymphoblastoid cell lines served as negative and as positive controls, respectively.
We performed a pilot functional study utilizing MMC to assess chromosomal instability in the peripheral blood of participants. A high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was performed on 16 POI patients to identify copy number variations (CNVs) for a set of 341 targeted genes implicated in DNA repair.
Array CGH revealed three POI patients (3/16, 18.8%) with pathogenic CNVs. Excessive chromosomal breakage suggestive of a constitutional deficiency in DNA repair was detected in one POI patient with the 16p12.3 duplication. In two patients with negative chromosome breakage analysis, aCGH detected a Xq28 deletion comprising the Centrin EF-hand Protein 2 (CETN2) and HAUS Augmin Like Complex Subunit 7 (HAUS7) genes essential for meiotic DNA repair, and a duplication in the 3p22.2 region comprising a part of the ATPase domain of the MutL Homolog 1 (MLH1) gene.
Peripheral lymphocytes, used as a surrogate tissue to quantify induced chromosome damage, may not be representative of all the affected tissues. Another limitation pertains to the MMC assay which detects homologous repair pathway defects and does not test deficiencies in other DNA repair pathways.
Our results provide evidence for functional impairment of DNA repair in idiopathic POI, which may predispose the patients to other DNA repair-related conditions such as accelerated aging and/or cancer susceptibility.