Analysis of the screening results of 24040 potential sperm donors in a human sperm bank in Henan Province, China: a 14-year retrospective cohort study
Is there a relation between the characteristics of potential sperm donors and the acceptance rate of these potential donors?
A relatively higher acceptance rate was observed for potential sperm donors who were aged ≤ 35 years, were married, had children, and who had received higher education, and acceptance rates were also higher during spring and winter than summer and autumn.
Recruiting donors to a sperm bank program is difficult and slow owing to the high rates of rejection and dropout.
A total of 24040 potential sperm donors were screened by the Henan Human Sperm Bank from 2006 to 2019.
Potential sperm donors were recruited using the following baseline requirement: height of 168 cm or taller; age 22-45 years; currently attending or had graduated from high school or above. Men who met the criteria for age, height, and education level were invited for semen quality screening. The acceptable criteria for semen samples included liquefaction time < 60min, volume ≥ 2mL, sperm concentration ≥ 60 × 106/mL, progressive motility ≥ 60%, post-thaw motility ≥ 40%, pre-freezing total motile sperm per vial > 30 × 106/mL, post-thaw total motile sperm per vial > 12 × 106/mL, and freeze-thaw survival rate ≥ 60%. Any potential sperm donors meeting the minimum criteria for acceptable semen quality on two consecutive semen samples were scheduled for clinical assessment, physical examination, and laboratory tests. The reasons for sperm donor rejection were analyzed. The characteristics of accepted and rejected donors were compared using the chi-square test, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with the acceptance rate of potential sperm donors and the positive rate of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
Only 23.38% (5620/24040) of potential sperm donors were accepted. The top four reasons for rejection were suboptimal semen quality (90.27%), STDs (6.26%), dropped out (2.65%), and chromosomal abnormalities (0.35%). The most common reason for the rejection of donors with an STD was a positive test for mycoplasmas (49.05%), followed by hepatitis B virus (27.56%), Chlamydia trachomatis (4.68%), and Escherichia coli (3.03%). n this study, the acceptance rate for men aged ≤ 35 years was significantly higher than that for men aged >35 years (P < 0.05). The acceptance rates were also significantly higher for men with a higher education than for men with lower education, married men than unmarried men, and men with children than men without children (P < 0.05). Moreover, acceptance rates were significantly higher during spring and winter than during summer (P <0.05) but were not significantly higher during autumn than during summer (P >0.05).
This study was not performed to analyze the effect of lifestyle habits, such as alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking, on the acceptance rate of potential sperm donors.
Only a small proportion of potential sperm donors were accepted in this anonymous sperm donor program. New strategies for sperm donor recruitment may be required to improve the acceptance rate. In the future, we may have to target potential sperm donors who are aged ≤ 35 years and who received higher education in order to improve the acceptance rate.